Peace Prize Winner See Every Cent as a Seed 和平獎得主看每一文錢像粒種籽
2006/10/21 | 作者:
  Muhammad Yunus, Bangladesh's "Banker to the Poor" who provided loans to help millions of people fight poverty by starting businesses, has won the Nobel Peace Prize.
孟加拉「窮人銀行家」尤努斯提供貸款,幫助千百萬人自己創業抗貧,使他贏得諾貝爾和平獎。

Yunus, who shared in the $1.4-million prize with the Grameen Bank he founded 30 years ago, pioneered the concept of microcredit. It allows the very poor, who don't qualify for traditional loans, to borrow as little as a few dollars without collateral. The bank's shareholders are the impoverished people it supports.
尤努斯和他卅年前創立的鄉村銀行分享一百四十萬美元的獎金。他首創微額貸款的觀念,讓無法取得傳統貸款的赤貧階級,可以借幾美元貸款,無須任何抵押擔保品。這家銀行的股東正是該行所資助的窮人。

Yunus, 66, and Grameen Bank were honored for "their efforts to create economic and social development from below," the Norwegian Nobel Committee announced in Oslo.
挪威諾貝爾獎委員會在奧斯陸宣布,六十六歲的尤努斯和鄉村銀行因為「努力從下而上創造經濟社會的發展」而備受推崇。

As Bangladesh celebrated, Yunus said in Dhaka, the capital, that he wanted "to work to create some more new things in the world" and would use the award money to start a company to produce cheap, nutritional food for the poor and to set up an eye hospital for the impoverished.
正當孟加拉舉國慶祝之際,尤努斯在首都達卡說,他要「在全世界創立更多新東西」,同時將用獎金開創一家公司,為窮人生產廉價又營養的食物,同時還要為貧民成立一家眼科診所。

He said winning made him "feel more encouraged" about developing other "poverty alleviation projects", and he expressed hope that "many countries will follow us" with similar programs.
他說,得獎使他「覺得更受鼓舞」,要發展其他「減貧計畫」,他也表示,希望「很多國家會步我們之後」也推出類似的計畫。

The Nobel committee said that "lasting peace cannot be achieved unless large population groups find ways in which to break out of poverty.  Microcredit is one such means," it said.
諾貝爾獎委員會說,「除非大半人群設法破除貧窮,很難獲致永遠的和平,微額貸款就是其中一種方式。」

The prize shines a light on a form of so-called social capitalism that has gained currency in recent years, propelled by high-profile supporters such as former President Clinton, rock star Bono and Microsoft founder Bill Gates.
這個獎更加彰顯一種近年來流傳甚廣的所謂社會資本主義,這是由美國前總統柯林頓、搖滾巨星波諾和微軟創辦人比爾.蓋茲等倍受矚目的贊助人所推動。

Gates' foundation has given more than $40 million to programs designed to provide loans, insurance and other types of financial assistance to the world's poorest people, including a $1.5-million grant to Yunus' Grameen Foundation.
蓋茲基金會已經捐出四千多萬美元,給提供貸款、保險和其他形式財務援助給世界上最窮的人的計畫,其中包括一百五十萬美元資助款給尤努斯的鄉村基金會。

Across the globe, more than 92 million poor people, most of them women, have taken loans as small as $30 and worked their way out of the most dire poverty, said the organizers of the Microcredit Summit Campaign.
據籌組「微型貸款高峰行動」的人表示,全球有九千兩百多萬窮人接受少至卅美元的貸款,其中大半是婦女,他們努力打拚,走出極度貧窮。

Yunus, who was nominated for the peace prize at least twice before, is the first Nobel winner from Bangladesh, a country of 147 million. His award is a rare bright spot in a country plagued by terrorism, floods and storms.
尤努斯過去至少兩度被提名和平獎,他是人口一億四千七百萬的孟加拉第一位諾貝爾獎得主。他得獎,在飽受恐怖主義、洪澇和風暴肆虐的國家是個罕見的光點。

Yunus received his PhD in economics in 1969 from Nashville's Vanderbilt University, where he was a Fulbright scholar. He became an assistant professor of economics at Middle Tennessee State University later that year before returning to Bangladesh, where he joined the economics faculty at Chittagong University.
尤努斯一九六九年從納許維爾的凡德比爾特大學拿到經濟學博士學位,他也是傅爾布萊特學者。同年稍後他返回孟加拉前,曾當中田納西州立大學經濟學助理教授,回孟加拉後,他成為吉大港大學經濟學教職員。

Bangladesh, one of the world's poorest countries, suffered a devastating drought and famine in 1974 that, by some estimates, killed more than 1 million people. While trying to help starving villagers, Yunus met a 21-year-old woman named Sufia Begum, who was burdened by a tiny yet crushing debt, Yunus recalled in his autobiography, "Banker to the Poor."
孟加拉是世界上最窮的國家之一,一九七四年遭到毀滅性的旱災和饑荒肆虐,據有人估計,至少有一百萬人遇害。在協助幫助饑貧交加的村落時,尤努斯遇到廿一歲的婦女,名叫貝加姆,據尤努斯在他的自傳「窮人的銀行家」憶述,她背負一小筆債但已經被壓垮了。

Begum, who had to borrow money to buy bamboo to make stools, received about 25 cents a day from the lenders. After repaying her debt in stools, she was left with 2 cents a day, barely enough to feed herself. To break the grinding cycle of debt and poverty, Yunus lent a total of $27 to Begum and more than 40 of her neighbors in the village of Joba.
貝加姆必須借錢買竹子做凳子,她從借貸者那裡每天拿到約廿五美分。在償還凳子的債務後,她每天只剩兩美分,幾乎餵不飽自己。為了打破債務與貧窮的惡性循環,尤努斯借了廿七美元給貝加姆,再借四十多美元給她在何巴村的鄰居。

He allowed them to pay him back over the next year as their businesses began to produce more stable profits.
他讓他們等第二年生意開始有穩定的利潤後再還錢。

He tried to persuade a local banker to lend more money to the villagers, but he refused, insisting they didn't qualify for credit. So Yunus started his own bank to help the poorest of the poor lift themselves up.
他試著說服當地銀行家借更多錢給村民,但銀行家拒絕,堅稱他們不符合貸款資格。尤努斯便自創銀行,以幫助最窮困的人提升自己的生活水平。

Three decades later, Grameen Bank has more than 6.6 million borrowers, 97% of whom are women. It has 2,226 branches and provides services in 71,371 villages in Bangladesh.
卅年後,鄉村銀行有六百六十多萬借貸者,其中百分之九十七是婦女,銀行有兩千兩百廿六分行,在孟加拉七萬一千三百七十個村子提供貸款服務。

In 2003, Yunus brought the microcredit revolution to the streets of Bangladesh to support more than 50,000 beggars.
二○○三年,尤努斯把微額貸款革命帶到孟加拉街頭,以支援五萬多名乞丐。

They receive interest-free loans of about $9 each to buy bread, candy, toys and other items to supplement their begging. Their payments usually are a few cents a week.
他們每人免息借九美元左右,買麵包、糖果、玩具和其他東西,以補乞討之不足,他們每周通常只要償付幾美分。

"Every single individual on Earth has both the potential and the right to live a decent life," the Nobel committee said. "Yunus and Grameen Bank have shown that even the poorest of the poor can work to bring about their own development."
諾貝爾獎委員會說:「地球上每個人有潛力也有權過像樣的生活。尤努斯和鄉村銀行已經證明,即使窮得不能再窮的人,也可以努力打拚,開創自己的未來。」


Grameen Bank 鄉村銀行(孟加拉文)
microcredit 微型貸款、微額貸款
collateral 抵押擔保品
shareholders 股東
poverty alleviation 減貧
social capitalism 社會資本主義
gained currency 流傳甚廣
high-profile 高姿態、倍受矚目
Fulbright scholar傅爾布萊特學者